Sakhalin Oblast occupies the island of Sakhalin with the adjacent small islands of Moneron and Tyuleniy, as well as the Kuril Islands, which include 56 islands. It is washed by the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan, and the Pacific Ocean.
Minerals: coal, oil, gas, raw materials for the chemical and cement industries, there are placers of titanomagnetite, mineral and thermal waters, manifestations of ore gold, mercury, manganese, tungsten, silver, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, nickel, cobalt, titanium, strontium and other minerals.
Most of the Kuril Islands are mountainous; about 160 volcanoes are known, 40 of which are active; high seismicity. There are many lakes and swamps on the territory of the region. Main rivers: the tym, Poronai (o. Sakhalin).
The dominant economic activities of the region are: